How many Types of Hackers are there ?

Ans. There are generally 3 types of hackers. One is White Hat Hackers: They mainly work for the government agencies or companies, and their functionality is mainly based on development or security, for the public good; another is Black Hat Hackers: They mostly work on their personal capacity for their own financial gains in an unauthorized and illegal manner, by doing harm to others; and the other is Grey Hat Hackers: They fall in between the previous two, whose intention may not be their own personal gain or cause damage, but they may end up committing something which is completely unethical and illegal.

What is the Difference Between Hacking and Cracking ?

Ans. Even though in a popular notion the term ‘hacking’ refers to a villainous act, hacking mainly denotes when the act is done with good intention in order to develop the security mechanisms for public or an industry. ‘Cracking’ is more exactly what we mean by illegal intrusion in a computer system, in bad faith.

What is Cyber Squatting ?

Ans. This involves registering a domain name which is identical to an established Brand Name/ Trade Mark/ Domain Name, and thereby making profit by the registrant in bad faith, using such domain name over the goodwill of the other one’s trademark. It can also happen when the registrant tries to sell his domain name to the genuine Brand Name/ Trade Mark holder for an excessive price.

What is Online Copyright Infringement ?

Ans. This involves unauthorized copying or using someone’s copyrighted material over the internet, without their permission, and thereby violating their exclusive right over such material. This can take place against any copyrighted article made by an author over the electronic media, or even in case of copying the legitimate web content.

What is Software Piracy ?

Ans. This involves illegal copying or downloading of the Copyright protected genuine software programs, and distribution of such products among public or different organizations. This can happen by way way of counterfeiting, i.e. duplicating the software, or illegally downloading the pirated software from the internet, and many other ways.

What are Malware, Spyware, Adware and Scareware ?

Ans. Malware is the short form of malicious software. It contains harmful bugs that damage the computer system without the user’s knowledge. It includes viruses, worms etc. The following 3 categories are types of malwares only.

Spyware is a type of malware which is used to track or monitor the user’s activity over the internet without his knowledge.

Adware is advertising supported software, function of which is to play and download advertisements automatically over the internet in a system.

Scareware is the software which shows the user while running the system a frightening message that there are some issues in the system, and by installing or subscribing to such software, the issue can be resolved.

What is Salami Attack ?

Ans. This involves unauthorized alteration of very small extents from a large source. Most likely such alterations would go unnoticed. This mainly takes place by way of financial frauds.

What is DDoS ? What is DoS Attack ? What are its Types ?

Ans. DDoS stands for Distributed Denial of Service attack. It happens when the attack is launched against a computer or website simultaneously from multiple locations.

Denial of Service (DoS) involves bringing a computer network down by flooding it with useless traffic, and thereby denying a legitimate user to access such network or website.

This attack is of 2 types: One is where the Operating System of a computer is attacked, causing it to crash; another is where Network is exploited causing a computer to disconnect from internet system.

What is Wiretapping ?

Ans. This involves tapping the telephone and eavesdrops into the conversation between two individuals. This raises a concern for the privacy. If the central government taps the phone call for maintaining public order, such interception is lawful under the IT Act.

What is Industrial Eavesdropping ?

Ans. This involves spying through the internet about product finances, research and development, and marketing strategies of different industries. Stealing the corporate data, Trade Secret etc. are the primary motives of these attackers. It can be done by way of Traffic Analysis.

Sometimes between the military and intelligence agencies, eavesdroppers use the electromagnetic impulses emanated by a computer to catch and make out a processed data.

Whether Internet Crime and Cyber Crime are same ?

Ans. Internet crime is a part of cyber crime. When a crime is committed with the help of internet, like hacking or phishing, it can be called an internet crime. However, all types of cyber crimes are not internet crime. For example, offences such as, destroying stored data from a computer hard disk or theft of data residing inside a computer system etc. Here internet is not used but they are part of cyber crime and not internet crime.

If a crime committed against mobile phone or any other communication device, is that a part of cyber crime too ?

Ans. Yes, cyber crime is an extensive sphere, which is not only restricted to computer or computer network. It encompasses any type of crime where a digital or electronic media is involved, subject to certain exceptions. Besides, mobiles are nothing but hand-held computers only.

What is Virtual World ?

Ans. Virtual world is formed of metaphoric, symbolic representations of information which the computer program functions, and data moves between individuals in order to make them interact with each other in a simulated environment.

What is Cyber Space ?

Ans. Cyber Space is the environment or domain that has arisen due to the use of internet, by means of which communication and exchange of data between different computer networks are done across the globe.

Whether cyber offences are punishable under law ?

Ans. Yes, cyber crime is one of the most emerging trends of offences in the modern world, and it is punishable under different statutes in different countries. The punishment can be either civil or criminal in nature.

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